At the very least, these two changes demonstrate that the certified totals were incorrect. If the results are incorrect, what is the meaning of “certified” in this context? I thought “certified” meant that the numbers provided had been checked and were found to be unambiguously accurate.

Without chain of custody, the three known options for these changes amount to the following: 1) the NYBOE can’t count, 2) the NYBOE (or a subordinate entity) is negligent, 3) someone committed election or voter fraud by embezzling blank and voided ballots.